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This book deals with both qualitative and quantitative approaches to research methodology; the steps followed in the research process; data collection (sampling, measuring, questioning and observing); and the procedures followed when applying a research design and interpreting research data. Various research techniques and methods are applied to conducting research of advertising, mass-media audiences and mass-media efficiency, and to conducting research in organisational and development contexts. The publication ends with a framework of scientific criteria and guidelines that can be used when planning and writing a research report, as well as when analysing and evaluating published research reports. Against the background of outcomes-based education, the aim of this publication is to enable learners to develop and acquire the following learning outcomes: research skills, problem-solving skills, communication skills, environmental literacy, developing a macrovision, self-responsibility skills, and developing individual, moral and ethical values as part of lifelong learning. Towards achieving these outcomes, and to accommodate different learning styles, the publication follows an interactive approach and contains several learning aids, such as marginal notes, executive summaries, self-evaluation and portfolio tasks, as well as guides with criteria that can be used by learners, teachers or examiners to assess the achievement of learning outcomes and performance.